Techniques for planning, shooting & editing vertical video
People have been taking vertical (portrait-format) photos for ever & a day, so why not films & videos? Well, a lot of it was to do with the way moving image apparatus was designed. But now, as cameras become smaller and easier to use, those limitations are rapidly disappearing and new possibilities are burgeoning.
Here are some tips for vertical videography virgins to get them going.
Tripods, Cameras & Mounts
Almost every camera these days can shoot high definition vertical video; once you've ensured that you can shoot at least 1280x720 resolution (1920x1080 is preferred for Festival screening) and either 24, 25 or 30fps (frames per second), it's just a matter of turning the device 90º then working out how to deal with the ergonomics of it.
If the camera screen or display can tilt, swivel and still be seen at 90º, even better! The smaller the camera, the tougher it is to keep steady while handheld though, so...
How ON EARTH do I mount a camera sideways on a tripod?
Fear not. Here are some ideas.
Plenty of manufacturers make mounts for mobile phone-cameras (above).
Some GoPro models (and their many competitors) come with simple 3-way pivot arms which allow you to angle them sideways, or you can purchase them as accessories.
Many ball-head tripods (above) allow 90º tilt shots.
If you have a DSLR camera, you might use a 3-way tilt-head tripod, usually used for stills, and mount it on that. This enables rough tilt & pan as well.
If your tripod legs have a horizontal centre column option, that's also an alternative, though slightly cumbersome.
In each case, you might want to keep shots angled correctly by investing in a small spirit-level (for a couple of bucks on the internet) that slots into the hot shoe connector on your camera to show when it's level.
None of these solutions is likely to give you smooth pans or tilts however. That may or may not be a problem depending on what you want to do.
For smooth tripod moves, or for cameras much heavier than a kilogram, you should be using a more solid tripod, ideally with a fluid head for gentle starts and finishes to both pan- & tilt-shots.
Therefore you might need an L-bracket Tripod Mount (also called an L-Plate) to go on top:
You can buy them or you might make your own with an L-bracket and buy the right screw for your camera baseplate from a hardware shop. Make sure your camera doesn't pivot on the screw and fall forward under the weight of its lens though. Larger cameras may have a second hole in their baseplate for a registration pin which prevents this.
Above, our favourite solution for fluid head tripods: try rotating the baseplate 90º on the bottom of your camera, mount it back on the tripod, tilt the head forward 90º and you might just have a workable solution without any extra gizmos. Make sure you counter-balance its tendency to fall, base-over-apex, so to speak! The best way to do this is to make sure one of the legs is directly below the camera.
All too complicated?
Handheld camerawork is becoming more and more common in cinema, and it's not because Lars von Trier can't afford a tripod. The only caveat we'd mention is that 9:16 tends to exaggerate horizontal (left-right) movement, especially when projected large and tall, as in this festival. Excessive camera wobbles — or even medium-fast pans — will amplify this effect and may make your audience ill! Lens image stabilisation may help if you have a lens with this feature, and applying an image stabiliser filter in editing may occasionally give acceptable results for smaller wobbles — do some tests of both with your camera. Generally it's best to avoid subjects that involve constant movement, or reduce its effects by following some basic handheld camera stability techniques in this link.
Left of Field options!
This guy made a steadicam out of an el cheapo tripod. Whether it could cope with 9:16 camera orientation though probably depends on the tripod head; we don't vouch for his method!
Or what about this, the ultimate cheap vertical filmmaking rig: kebab skewers and tape!
Do you have any experiences or other techniques to share? Please email us a photo and description and if we think it can help others we'll include add it to the page!
ⓘ A little word of caution: always take great care when mounting cameras in ways that the manufacturers didn't intend, as their centre of gravity will shift, potentially making it unbalanced, and placing unexpected strains on the bottom of the unit.
Lastly, please note that these links are not to endorse any particular brand, model or retailer. There are many more out there easily uncovered by a quick web search.
Vertical video framing initially takes a bit of thought, but once you get the hang of it, your perspective on the world changes!
Look out for strong vertical lines in the composition of the shot that can give reason for it to exist in the vertical format. People, buildings, trees, mountains, giraffes...
The Rule of Thirds still often applies. If your shot has a strong horizon, consider moving it away from the middle of the frame — unless it's your compositional strategy.
Low and tall angles take on extra power in the vertical format — experiment!
Remember that action-safe and title-safe areas still apply: keep important detail and especially text away from the frame edges lest it be cut off during stabilisation, projection or playback.
Okay, this is not just a festival for climbing and giraffe films. Our first edition was an umbrella event of the Australian Climbing Festival and so quite a few entries were climbing-related.
However there are plenty of other subjects out there that would be very interesting from a vertical perspective as well. The best advice might be to choose a subject — any subject — which 9:16 will show from a whole new perspective.
The trick here is to edit your footage how it was shot and do the rotation last (or, if you're entering a film in the Festival, we do the rotation for you). This is because you'll need a sideways version for screening (since the projector and screen will be rotated, not your film) and an upright version for Vimeo and the WWW. So:
1. Import and edit your footage as it is, at its highest resolution (if it's sideways you may like to use a second display and turn it on its side to avoid cricks in your neck! Did you know that iPads can be used as secondary vertical displays for a laptop, for example?)
2. Export with the recommended compression as Vimeo explain here.
3. At this stage you can choose to upload it to Vimeo without adjusting the rotation for the Festival's Selection Panel to view. Details about our upload and submission procedures are on our Submit Your Work page (you should read this next).
4. If you want to rotate your video for yourself and know a bit about what you're doing, you can use the free, cross-platform MPEG Streamclip (see screenshot, right) to rotate the video 90º and re-save it (use SAVE AS, not export, else you will lose some video quality on the re-encode). This may also work with Quicktime 7 Pro for Mac or ffmpeg for Mac and PC and basically changes the 'rotation' flag on an MP4/H.264 video file without re-encoding. (Note that Quicktime, Vimeo & YouTube will take notice of this flag, but VLC playback may not.) All these options are complicated and recommended only for people with some technical knowledge!
ⓘ If you shoot on an smartphone or tablet, it may already rotate the material for you. Most editing programs (such as Final Cut Pro X) will allow you to work with tall-screen formats as a custom resolution (eg. 1080x1920), then edit normally, and export without any nasty black bars being added.
ⓘ Don't want to buy an editing program? Check out Lightworks Free for Linux, Mac and Windows.
If you use existing, published music you will need permission in writing (a licence agreement) to do so. These can be very expensive unless you know the writers and performers personally! It’s therefore often better to use original or royalty-free music.
Here's a brief explanation of music copyright for filmmakers. You might buy tracks for video use from a site like AudioNetwork or Vimeo's own Music Store, or you might dive into the sharing world via Creative Commons (CC). Here's an explanation of how CC works with site links, and here's another listing of Creative Commons music sites such as SoundCloud. Better still, befriend a composer or some musicians who want to get their music out to the world!
Working Vertically Online
As of July 2015 there is a dedicated vertical video platform for mobile devices called Vervid. This is a very exciting development, however it works on mobile devices. We therefore use Vimeo for judging previews and for exhibition of finalists because they're one of the few sites that allow us to easily embed tall-format screen videos up the right way on the web without encountering the vertical filmmaker's nemesis: pillar-boxing (black bars on the sides of the video). Bizarrely, pillar-boxing will appear on your video when viewed on Vimeo's own page, and your icon may go funny, but both problems disappear if you 1) embed the video on your own page or blog or social media channel and 2) upload a custom thumbnail via Vimeo's settings for the video.
Facebook used to cope well with vertical videos, but now pillarboxes them again. It also comes with a whole swag of issues surrounding content ownership — plus compression quality is often extremely poor.
YouTube, like Vimeo, will display videos with pillar-boxing on their site, but also if you copy the embed code. The solution here (at the time of writing) is to edit the embed code when pasting it into a webpage, and change the dimensions to 9:16 (eg. replace <iframe width="1280" height="960" with the figures 540 and 960 respectively). It can take some fiddling to get it right. We've heard rumour that YouTube is finally getting its act together for vertical filmmakers, especially for playback on its mobile app, so do check for yourself.
Hopefully these companies will wake up to themselves soon and realise that vertical video can be a valid aesthetic choice on the part of the filmmaker, and they therefore deserve a bit of dignity! :-)
All these tips have been about vertical vision, but that's not to say good sound is any less important ("sound is fifty percent of the movie-going experience" according to a certain well-known Hollywood director). Recording good, clean sound on location may save you hours of anguish in the editing room and your audience will thank you for not having to listen to lens stabilisers clicking away.
And no, you shouldn't rotate your stereo microphones 90º with the camera, otherwise left/right will become top/bottom!
Lastly: experiment. Like the early pioneers of expanded cinema, test out your ideas, make mistakes, find solutions, break rules, and push the vertical form's potential. That's precisely what we set up the Festival to encourage, and we can't wait to see what you come up with!